Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line

U.S. Anti-Revisionism

Third Wave, 1960-1970 –Index Page


The third wave of U.S. anti-revisionism can best be described as a transition period – between the first and second waves, which were born from struggles inside the CPUSA, and the fourth wave, which developed out of the increasing radicalization of the mass struggles of the turbulent 1960s. While some of the anti-revisionist groups of the third wave – such as Progressive Labor and Hammer & Steel – did come directly out of the CPUSA, others, such as the Communist Party, USA (Marxist-Leninist) were independent formations, without direct roots in the CPUSA – influenced instead primarily by ’60s radicalism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution.

The Chinese Revolution has always played an important role in U.S. anti-revisionism. The anti-revisionist groups of the late 1940s frequently referred to the Chinese experience, and, in the late 1950s, supporters of the Provisional Organizing Committee (POC) quoted Mao in their critique of CPUSA policies. But it was the appearance of open polemics between the Communist Parties of the Soviet Union and China in the early 1960s, which gave a tremendous boost to anti-revisionism internationally, including in the United States. The Chinese polemics against Soviet “modern revisionism” inspired many to question what had been, up-to-then, orthodox Communist positions on many subjects and provided the anti-revisionist movement with an international center and point of reference.

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and the proclamation of Maoism as a distinct version of Marxism-Leninism further stimulated and inspired many if not all prior anti-revisionists and others looking for a different kind of communism from the model represented by the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. This was particularly true of students and other young people, who looked to the Chinese Red Guards as a model of activism. While some of these young activists were drawn to Progressive Labor, the full flowering of American Maoism would not come until the proliferation of new groups and organizations after 1969, in the fourth wave of U. S. anti-revisionism.

Index of organizations in this section (by alphabetical order)
Ad Hoc Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Party
Communist Party, USA (Marxist-Leninist)
Hammer & Steel – New England Party of Labor
League of Revolutionary Black Workers
Marxist-Leninist Party and Red Women’s Detachment
Progressive Labor Movement – Progressive Labor Party
Revolutionary Action Movement
Youth for Stalin – Stalinist Workers Group for Afro-American National Liberation and a New Communist International


General Background Materials


Family Tree Chart of U.S. Anti-Revisionism, 1956-1977 by the Communist Workers Group (Marxist-Leninist)

Turn to the Working Class: The New Left, Black Liberation, and the U.S. Labor Movement (1967-1981) by Kieran Walsh Taylor

Black Like Mao: Red China and Black Revolution by Robin D.G. Kelley and Betsy Esch

Transnational Correspondence: Robert F. Williams, Detroit, and the Bandung Era by Bill V. Mullen

Speech by U.S. Negro Leader Robert Williams, at a rally in Peking on Aug. 8, 1966, protesting the discrimination against African-Americans in the U.S.

Robert F. Williams’ The Crusader Newsletter

Interview on the Cultural Revolution with Chris Milton, a Participant

Serve The People [Classwar comix]

Relevant Chinese Polemics

A Comment on the Statement of the CPUSA

People of the World, Unite and Defeat the U.S. Agressors and All Their Lackeys by Mao Tse Tung

Progressive Labor Movement – Progressive Labor Party


The Progressive Labor Movement (PLM) was launched in July 1962 in New York by some fifty former members of the CPUSA, who left the Party after a series of disputes on a variety of theoretical and political issues. Elected to leadership at the conference were Milt Rosen and Mort Scheer, as Chairman and Vice Chairman of National Coordinating Committee. Rosen had previously been a member of the NY State Committee of the CPUSA and its Labor Secretary. Scheer had also been a member of the State Committee and Chair of the Erie County Organization of the CPUSA. Early on, the founders of PL sympathized with China in the Sino-Soviet Split. The PLM was also active in the movement in solidarity with the Cuban Revolution, arranging trips to Cuba in defiance of State Department policy. PL did important organizing in Harlem through the work of Bill Epton and others. The PLM was also one of the earliest organizations to mobilize against the Vietnam War through the May 2nd Movement. In the summer of 1965, the PLM became the Progressive Labor Party (PLP). Later in the decade, supporters of the PLP played a major role in SDS and maintained control over the organization after the 1969 SDS convention. The PLP broke with Maoism at the beginning of the 1970s.

Historical Works

Maoism in the U.S.: A Critical History of the Progressive Labor Party by Mary-Alice Waters

The History of the Progressive Labor Party – Part One


Brief History of PLP [from the Old Mole, July 4-17, 1969]

Letter from Mort Scheer on PL's Relationship with other U.S. Anti-Revisionists

The Five Retreats: A History of the Failure of the Progressive Labor Party by Jim Dann and Hari Dillon

“On PL’s Leaders’ Origins in the CPUSA” by Jim Dann

Progressive Labor Party Forged in Struggle 1960-1964 (Draft)

A review of Challenge in the 1970’s (Draft)

Breaking through the Cane-Curtain: The Cuban Revolution and the Emergence of New York’s Radical Youth, 1961–1965 by Toru Umezaki

Comrade Milt Rosen, 1926-2011 Founding Chairperson of PLP, Great 20th Century Revolutionary

The Early Years of Progressive Labor in the Bourgeois Press

U.S. Communists Begin Ousting ’Pro-Albanians’ From the Party [New York Times, January 6, 1962]

59 U.S. Students Start a Visit to Cuba, Defying Washington [New York Times, July 1, 1963]

A New Left Wing Emerging in U.S. [New York Times, July 14, 1963]

Negro Planning to Run as Socialist for Council [New York Times, July 26, 1963]

50 Students Back from Cuba; House Anti-Red Panel Calls 10 [New York Times, August 30, 1963]

Jury Subpoenas Visitors to Cuba [New York Times, September 10, 1963]

Federal Jury Queries 6 on Recent Cuba Visit [New York Times, September 12, 1963]


Leftist Movement Opens Harlem Drive [New York Times, June 15, 1964]

Police Ban March in Harlem Today; Sponsors Defiant [New York Times, July 25, 1964]

Protest Leaders Seized in Harlem [New York Times, July 26, 1964]

Leftists Behind Harlem Protest Step Up Work Under Close Eye [New York Times, July 26, 1964]

Left-Wing Group Here Urges a Revolution [New York Times, July 31, 1964]

Communist Views on Negro Collide [New York Times, August 1, 1964]

Criminal Anarchy Charged to Epton in Indictment Here [New York Times, August 6, 1964]

Harlem Leftists Curbed by Court [New York Times, August 8, 1964]

Epton Denies Guilt on Anarchy Charge [New York Times, August 14, 1964]

Red China Assails U.S. Communists [New York Times, August 16, 1964]


40 Leftists Held in 47th St. March [New York Times, August 16, 1964]

Gives As Reason His Desire for Vietnam War to End [New York Times, September 5, 1964]

City Moves to Lift Harlem Injunction [New York Times, September 18, 1964]

Plot is Laid to Harlem Witnesses [New York Times, April 6, 1965]

A New Red Party Is Formed in U.S. [New York Times, April 16, 1965]

New Leftist Group Gives Itself a Name and Elects Officers [New York Times, April 19, 1965]

To the East of the Communist Party [New York Times, April 25, 1965]

New Indictment Accuses Epton of Anarchy Plot [New York Times, June 8, 1965]

Plan for Revolt is Laid to Epton [New York Times, December 1, 1965]

Epton is Cleared of 1 of 4 Counts [New York Times, December 11, 1965]

Epton Testifies in his Defense and Denies Charges of Anarchy [New York Times, December 14, 1965]

Epton Convicted on Riot Charges [New York Times, December 21, 1965]

Epton Gets Year in Anarchy Case; Harlem Leader Defends Views [New York Times, January 28, 1966]

U.S. Court Upsets Curb on Passport [New York Times, April 16, 1966]

Witnesses Come from Militant New-Left Groups [New York Times, August 19, 1966]

12 Held as Inquiry on Leftists Ends [New York Times, August 20, 1966]

Just A Quiet Little Hearing [New York Times, August 21, 1966]

Epton’s Conviction in ’64 Riot Stands [New York Times, January 23, 1968]

Epton Enters Jail for Role in Riots [New York Times, February 6, 1968]

The Early Years of Progressive Labor in the Trotskyist Press

Progressive Labor and the New Generation [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 1, No. 1 Supplement, September 1964]

What Lies Behind Khrushchevite Revisionism? A Discussion of the Important Theoretical Questions Raised by Progressive Labor’s Latest International Statement [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 26, 1964]

Fight Inquisition of PLM [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 1, January 11, 1965]

On the Road to Revolution in the United States. Progressive Labor and the Origins of Revisionism in the American Communist Movement [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 3, Supplement February 8, 1965]


The Questions Facing the Progressive Labor Movement [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 7, April 19, 1965]

Special Report on PL’s Foundation Convention [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 8, May 3, 1965]

The Progressive Labor Party’s Founding Convention by Tom Kerry [The Militant, Vol. 29, No. 19, May 10, 1965]

Letter of Resignation From Progressive Labor [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 14, September 6, 1965]

Progressive Labor on Criticism and Defense [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 20, November 20, 1965]

Progressive Labor. Stalin Lives? [Spartacist, No. 5, November-December 1965]

The Epton Trial. Behind the Government’s Witchhunt [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 22, December 27, 1965]

Why PL Dissolved M2M [Bulletin of International Socialism, Vol. 2, No. 28, March 29, 1966]

Progressive Labor: Opportunism in the Labor Movement by Lucy St. John [Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 15, April 15, 1968]

Progressive Labor and Unions – From Lenin to Gompers by Lucy St. John [Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 16, April 29, 1968]

Progressive Labor and Community Control/Black Power by Lucy St. John [Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 17, May 13, 1968]

PL and the Origins of Revisionism by Lucy St. John [Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 19, June 10, 1968]

Progressive Labor Party’s Trade Union Program by the Vanguard Newsletter

PL on Cuba by Ernest Haberkern [International Socialist]

PL At A Dead End [Spartacist, No. 19, November-December 1970]

Questions Facing Progressive Labor by Lucy St. John

Where Is PL Going? by Neil Anthony

Editorial: The End of Progressive Labor Party by the Revolutionary Age

PL: Road to Oblivion? [Workers Vanguard, No. 16, February 1973]

PL on the Road to Reformism: An Insiders’ Viewpoint by Art Carling and Jay Franklin

Other Background Materials and Polemics


Student Tells of Challenge, New Harlem Weekly Paper by Brian Keleher

Hammer & Steel on Progressive Labor and the Afro-American National Question

The Progressive Labor Party is a Conciliator of Modern Revisionism by the Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist)

Letter to Progressive Labor by Noel Ignatin [with letter of support from Ted Allen]

“For Complete Solidarity with the People of Vietnam”: Statement of the Washington State Progressive Labor Party to the National Committee, PLP, to the members and fellow workers

The PLP and Vietnam by the Progressive Workers Movement [Canada]

PLP: A Critique by the Old Mole

SDS Expels PL by New Left Notes

Progressive Labor Party: ’All Nationalism Is Reactionary’ by T. H. Andre

Second Coming [On Progressive Labor and SDS] by Phil Hutchings

The Anti-Marxist-Leninist Line of Progressive Labor by John Ericson and Charles Loren

PL Gangster Attacks in River Rouge Workers Vanguard, February 28, 1975

PL “Picks Up the Gun” for Uncle Sam by Young Spartacus

Will PL Support Choice? [from the Workers’ Advocate Supplement, published by the Marxist-Leninist Party, USA]



Here We Stand: A Statement of Principles by the Editors [Milton Rosen and Mort Scheer]

Road to Revolution

U.S. Grand Jury Calls PL Leaders – Milton Rosen Blasts Kennedy “Fear”

How They Muzzled The Aug. 28 March: 200,000 Took A Step Towards Freedom, But There’s Still A Long March Ahead [On the 1963 March on Washington]

“Freedom Now Party” – A Comment by Bill Epton

Audio Recording of PLM Press Conference on the Return of U.S. Students from Cuba, 1963 (Part 1: Initial Interview with Phillip Abbott Luce and press conference introduction), (Part 2: Discussion on race), (Part 3: Statement from Mexican American students), (Part 4: Statements of other students who went to Cuba), (Part 5: Discussion of political views)

Transcript of PLM Press Conference on the Return of U.S. Students from Cuba, 1963 (Part 1: Initial Interview with Phillip Abbott Luce and press conference introduction), (Part 2: Discussion on race), (Part 3: Statement from Mexican American students), (Part 4: Statements of other students who went to Cuba), (Part 5: Discussion of political views)

First PL Election Campaign Winds Up

Kennedy’s Assassination: A System in Crisis [A Progressive Labor Special Supplement]

William Z. Foster by Fred Carlisle

War on SNCC: Turning Point for Freedom Fighters

Johnson’s War in Vietnam by the Editors of Progressive Labor


Armed Police Terror by Bill Epton, Fred Jerome and Milton Rosen

With The 84 Americans in Cuba

Brown Calls Cops to Teach Students [Progressive Labor Movement leaflet, Berkeley Free Speech Movement]

On The Marxist-Leninist Method of Reaching Decisions by Lee Coe

Nix on Nikita

Progressive Labor Editorial Comment: Malcolm X and Black Nationalism

Call For A National Founding Convention

Statement of Principles and Strategic Concepts

New Cuba. The story of 84 young American workers and students who defied the U.S. State Department's travel ban and toured Cuba from June 12 through August 12, 1964 as written by the students themselves

The Student Committee for Travel to Cuba Comments

It is not enough to be for peace... by the May 2nd Movement

On the Party

Special Edition of Challenge newspaper: Today Vietnam, Tomorrow – The World

Preconvention Discussion on Black Liberation

Black Self-Determination by Bill Epton

The Black Liberation Struggle and the Right to Revolution [Pre-Convention Discussion Bulletin #2: Minutes of the October 1964 Meeting of the National Coordinating Committee of the Progressive Labor Movement]

Black Nationalism is the Correct Strategy by Andrew Gunder Frank

Freedom NOT Nationhood by Bob Glaberson

Some Ideas on Black Liberation. A Report of a Discussion from the State of Washington

’Parallel Struggle’ The Right Way by Bill Turner


Party Building and the World Communist Movement



PLP Hits the Streets

We Have A Choice! Bill Epton for State Senator [flyer]

Editorial: Revolutionary Socialism Will Triumph

’ Free Bill Epton!’

Criticism and Self-Criticism

We Accuse: Bill Epton Speaks to the Court

’They’re Crawling Out of the Walls Again’ An Editorial

PLP Community Work: 1001 Days and Nights on the Lower East Side by Alice Jerome

PLP Community Work: Struggles in the Mission District by the PLP Club Mission District

New Program of the Communist Party U.S.A. (A Draft): “Pretty Pictures of Singing Tomorrows” by Alice Jerome and Mort Scheer

Elections: A Method of Struggle by Jeff Gordon

PLP Study Guide for Classes on the Party

Origins of Revisionism in the USSR by John Ericson


Road to Revolution II

Letter to Challenge newspaper: National Question [on the CPUSA (M-L)]

Build a Base in the Working Class

Supreme (Fig Leaf) Court Hands Out Anti-Epton Decision. Progressive Labor Party National Committee Statement

Communists Try to Organize “Factories in the Fields”: Organizing California Migrant Workers in the Great Depression by Jin Dann (Progressive Labor, February 1969]

Revolutionaries Must Fight Nationalism

Nationalism Divides Workers – Don’t Be a Sucker for the Bosses [PL Replies to Its Critics] by Mort Scheer

New York: a big “YES” for internationalism by the Canadian Worker

Road to Revolution III

The People Need a Communist Party by Bill Epton [critique of the PLP]

Notice from the National Committee of the Progressive Labor Party [on the expulsion of Bill Epton]

PLP internal document on nationalism and the expulsion of Bill Epton [Winter 1970]

An Inside View: Progressive Labor Party

Fight Sectarianism – Build Party Unity with the Masses

Strengths and Weaknesses in the line of the International Communist Movement

The 7th Comintern Congress and The United front Against Fascism

Suggestions for the [Third] Party Convention [On the Crisis in PL] by Dennis King


P.L.P. Third Convention

The Party, the Current Period, and Fighting the Right-Wing Trend by T.C.

On Male Chauvinism [in the PLP] by Susan L.

Exchange on Homosexuality in Challenge-Desafio

“Chicken Little in Boston” [On the Boston PL split]

Organize On-the-Job Struggle

Win With Marxism-Leninism. A Progressive Labor Party Cartoon Book

Reform and Revolution

Albania’s Leaders Rewrite History. Statement of the National Committee of the Progressive Labor Party

Road to Revolution 4

Road to Revolution 4.5

Report to Steering Committee of Progressive Labor Party: “Dark Night Shall Have its End”

Domestic Issues

Army Occupies Strategic Hamlet of Watts – A statement from the National Committee of the Progressive Labor Party

The great Flint Sit-down Strike Against GM 1936-37 by Walter Linder

Of Ballots and Guns by Ed Clark


Progressive Labor Party Trade Union Program

On Black Power – Progressive Labor Party Statement

Progressive Labor Critique of Scheer Race

Tough Fight Ahead vs. HUAC

On HUAC’s cesspool bill: A Statement by Progressive Labor Party Witnesses, August 19, 1966

Progressive Labor Party Statement: The Elections: Decline of Liberalism, Lessons for Left [Challenge, Vol. III, No. 10, December 15, 1966]

Left Upholds PL Partiers Against Fuzz

Hassled? Out To Prove It

Aftermath of the 1967 U.A.W. Strike by Walter Linder

Blacks Answer in Fury: Non-Violence is Dead. Organize! [on the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.]

Fight Police Terror. Smash Racism.

Memphis Workers Fight: The City Sanitation Workers’ Strike by Fred Lacey

Program for Black Liberation

Black Workers: Key Revolutionary Force

U.S. Imperialism and the Fascist Danger by Clayton Van Lydegraf

Panthers Unite with CP Hacks

Panthers Suffer Local ’Atrocities’: Black Workers Feared

Black and White Construction Workers: Divided by the Bosses

Who Are the Bombers? Often the Rulers! by SDS

Who Governs McGovern?

Who Governs McGovern? [expanded version]

30 For 40

Workers Action Movement Convention, April 1973

Workers' Action! Join the Workers Action Movement

The WAM Kit [to all WAM leaders]

A preamble to the WAM Constitution

Keynote Speech to the WAM Convention

Progressive Labor Party Statement to the WAM Convention

Late articles for the WAM newsletter

Chants for the May Day March

Houston WAM flyer

* * *

Fascism and Busing in Boston

The Vietnam War and the Peace Movement

The Significance of the State Department White Paper on Vietnam by the May 2nd Committee Harvard-Radcliffe

The Peace Movement by Milt Rosen, President, Progressive Labor Party

Peace Movement–II: Workers Hold Key by Milt Rosen, President, Progressive Labor Party


What is the May 2nd Movement?

LBJ Attacks With A Right and "Left": PLP Statement on the Peace Movement

M-2-M: ’Won’t Stop Now’ by Walter Linder

Medical Aid to Vietnamese

45 Pledge Blood to Viets, North or NLF

Imperialist and Revisionist Allies by Milt Rosen, President, Progressive Labor Party

We stand united against imperialist wars

The War and the Movement A Statement by the National Committee Progressive Labor Party

Stop the Draft! by Len Ragozin

Anti-War Movement Must Ally or Die

U.S. Imperialism and Vietnam: An Economic View

PL Editorial: U.S. Get Out of Vietnam Now!

Smash the Bosses’ Armed Forces: A Fighting Program for GIs

White House-Kremlin Collusion in Vietnam. Anti-Revolutionary Axis A Progressive Labor editorial

Vietnam: Defeat U.S. Imperialism

The Hidden History of the Vietnam War [GIs Rebel in Vietnam]

Progressive Labor/SDS/Student Mobilization Committee Conflict in Boston, 1970

PL, SMC in Boston battle

Facts on PL attack on SMC meeting

Wide Array of Groups Back SMC on issue of PL attacks

Two PL Leaflets on SMC

China and the Cultural Revolution

China’s Cultural Revolution by Sam Corbin

Exclusive CHALLENGE Report! Inside A Red Guard Unit

Prof. From China Speaks: Columbia Students Learn of Red Guards by Tony Papert

Challenge Editorial: New ’Friends’ of China

A First Hand Report on the Cultural Revolution Written Especially for Challenge Readers by Rewi Alley

A Personal View of China's Cultural Revolution by Kurt Mendelssohn [Challenge, Vol. III, No. 12, March 1967]

International Report [PLP internal document on differences with China over nationalism, Winter 1970]

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution and the Reversal of Workers’ Power in China

Mao: The Two Sides of His Life

China:The Reversal of Socialism

Other International Issues

France May 1968 Workers Rebel!

Defeat USSR Imperialism-Czechoslovak Revisionism

On ’Super-Revolutionaries’ – Why Che Had to Fail by Jim Dann

Guevera’s Great Adventure by Eric Johnson

Is Cuba Socialist? by Jake Rosen

Challenge Editorial: Workers Will Smash Nixon-Mao/Chou Axis

More Than A Few Good Guerrillas Are Needed to Make A Revolution [20 years after the murder of Che Guevara]

Students and Youth

FBI Dogs Anti-draft Organizer

Rick Rhoads – Angry Young Activist


A program for action: Worker-Student Alliance by Jeff Gordon

SDS Work-In 1968: Towards a Worker-Student Alliance

SDS: An Analysis by Jeff Gordon

Two Proposals on Racism

Rulers Coopt Nationalist Demands: Black & Brown Students Used by Don King

One World Imperialists Run ’Third World’ Student Movement by Hari Dillon and Bridges Randle

Another view on SDS by Jim Prickett

A Class Analysis of the Radical Student Movement by Fred Gordon

Southern Students Defeat Liberalism: The South Must Be Won by Ed Clark

60 Yale Students Suspended After Office Occupation 

Fight Racism! by SDS

700 turn out for national WSA meeting by Carl Davidson

Campus Worker-Student Alliance by Bob Leonhardt

Students Upset Courtroom ’Order’: Put the Courts on Trial by John Levin

Students & Revolution

PL internal document on preparation for 1970 SDS convention

The Rise and Fall of Progressive Labor at Columbia University as reported in the Columbia Daily Spectator

Marxist-Leninist Organization Formed by Columbia Students

American Students’ Trip to Cuba Creates Furor by Jonathan Stein

Anti-Nhu Student Arrested at CCNY For “Loitering”


Allow Marxist-Leninist Group To Meet Pending Recognition

Progressive Labor’s Editor Says Oswald Was Innocent by Joel Levine

Progressive Labor Plans to Organize West Side Tenants by Peter Greene

Prof. From China Speaks: Columbia Students Learn of Red Guards by Tony Papert

Attempts by PL Fail to Organize Library Workers by John Koutsos

Rifts Within Student Left Hamper Anti-War Efforts by Michael Rothfeld

Labor Committee Disbanded By SDS General Assembly by Louis Dolinar

’Challenge’: Counter-Institutions

SDS Tactics: Getting It Together. .. Whatever It Is by Jeffrey Arsham

SDS Faction Stages 6-Hour Sit-in by Jerry Kopel

SDS Focuses on “Fighting Racism” by Lenny Glynn

The Battle Joined: SDS vs PL by Lenny Glynn

SDS Divided on Analysis of Failure by Lenny Glynn

Two, Three, Many SDS’s by Lenny Glynn

WSA to Organize Cafeteria Boycott To Back Workers by Lilian Ehrlich

Radical Groups Plan 3 Separate Protests: RYM and WSA Call For Actions Today by Fred Schneider

WSA 1-Day Cafeteria Boycott Termed ’Fairly Successful’ by Lenny Glynn

WSA Pickets Dining Halls; Clash With Guards at Dodge by Louis Dolinar

Collective Discipline Trial Set For 5 WSA Members

Tribunal Suspends 5 WSA Members For Indefinite Time by Cyndi Reinhart

NUC Expels Labor Faction In Internal Political Dispute by Linda Weinstein

SAS Support for Panthers May Bring Unity to Radicals by Louis Dolinar

Security Guards Club SDS Leader by Jerry Kopel

Latins Demand ’Free Puerto Rico’ by Ben Lieber

Attack on PL by Michael Golash 

SDS Makes Major Change In Its Political Orientation by  Ben Lieber

The New SDS 

Progressive Labor at Harvard University as reported in the Harvard Crimson

May 2nd Leader Denies PLP Controls Movement by Michael Lerner 

SDS Members Picket Boston Army Base by W. Bruce Springer  

SDS Shifting From Protest to Organizing by Richard Blumenthal 

SDS Leadership Strong On Unity 

SDS Statement 

175 March Into Univ. Hall, Protest Project Cambridge by David N. Hollander and Jeff Magalif 

SDS Not Involved 

Must Be the Season of the War  by Carol R. Sternhell

WSA Charges Weathermen With Attacks on Workers by Carol R. Sternhell  

350 Anti-War Marchers Rally at JFK Building by Carol R. Sternhell

SDS Members Protest ’Racism,’ Plan Sit-In by James M. Fallows 

SDS and Weathermen Hold Separate Protests by Shirley E. Wolman 

WSA Caucus Considers Vote to Disband After Splits Between Old SDS Factions 

SDS Leads Boston March Against the Vietnam War by M.D.L.  

PL Attacks Ansara; Ansara Attacks PL

14 Arrested at Boston Globe Office by H. Jeffrey Leonard 

The Strike as History by  Seth M. Kupferberg

Break with the Canadian Party of Labour

Bury Trudeau with anti-racism and revolution: Raise red flag over Quebec and all of Canada by the Progressive Labor Party

Lenin’s road to revolution: Support Quebec’s right to self-determination by the Canadian Party of Labour

Minutes of Toronto Cell Leaders’ Meeting, August 13, 1978 [including “PL’s Abandonment of Leninism”]


Can’t fight racism with nationalism: Nationalism equals capitalism by the Progressive Labor Party

Leninist principles guide CPL’s work by the Canadian Party of Labour

PLP: Liberals with baseball bats by the Canadian Party of Labour

An encore for chauvinist PLP by the Canadian Party of Labour

PLP factionalism by the Canadian Party of Labour

Letter: Change in PLP line? by the Canadian Party of Labour

Mourn for him, boys PLP-LP rewrites Joe Hill by the Canadian Party of Labour

Concerning the road to revolution by the Canadian Party of Labour

Concerning PL’s erroneous line: Peasants and socialism by the Canadian Party of Labour

Road to Reaction III by the Canadian Party of Labour

Road to Reaction III: Ignorant and opportunist attack on Stalin by the Canadian Party of Labour

Road to Reaction III (comments on PLP line): Getting Lenin straight by the Canadian Party of Labour

Concerning the road the revolution: PL at sea in anarchy by the Canadian Party of Labour

* * *


The Marxist-Leninist Quarterly

World Revolution

Progressive Labor magazine, 1971-1982

The Communist

W.I.N. The Workers International Newsletter

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Revolutionary Action Movement

The Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM) was the first independent Black revolutionary Marxist organization of the 1960s. Organized in 1962 by Muhammad Ahmad (Max Stanford), a close associate of Malcolm X and Queen Mother Audley Moore, RAM was a national semi-clandestine organization which articulated a revolutionary program for African Americans that fused Black nationalism with Marxism-Leninism.

Although it was not a large organization, RAM influenced a wide range of groups, including the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Black Panther Party, the League of Revolutionary Black Workers, and the Black Workers Congress. RAM dissolved in 1969. As Max Elbaum notes, “RAM’s significance had not resided in its organizational strength, but in its popularization of revolutionary nationalist, Marxist and Maoist ideas during a critical period of the Black freedom movement.” (Revolution in the Air, p. 65)


Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM): A Case Study by Maxwell C. Stanford

History of RAM



The World Black Revolution by Muhammad Ahmad [1966]

The 12-Point Program of RAM

Black America, Fall 1964

Black America, Summer 1965

Revolutionary Nationalist [August 1965]

Vibrations, #3, September 21, 1968

Vibrations, #4, December 21, 1968

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The League of Revolutionary Black Workers


The League of Revolutionary Black Workers (LRBW) was formed in 1969 in Detroit, Michigan. The League united a number of different Revolutionary Union Movements (RUMs) that were growing rapidly among rank-and-file Black workers in the Detroit auto plants. The formation of the League was an attempt to create a more cohesive political organization guided by the principles of Black liberation and revolutionary Marxism-Leninism. By the summer of 1971, the League ceased to exist, having split into several groups. One of these groups joined with the Communist League and other organizations to found the Communist Labor Party. Others became part of the Black Workers Congress and its progeny. While the LRBW was only active for a short period of time, it was a significant and influential organization in a time of increasing militancy and political action by Black workers and in the context of both the Black liberation and anti-revisionist communist movements in the United States.

Background and Historical Materials

For 1969, Dodge Fever Turns Up the Heat by Donna Shoemaker [The Movement, December 1968]

To the Point of Production – An Interview with John Watson of the League of Revolutionary Black Workers

“Finally Got the News” – film (1970)


“Finally Got the News” – the Making of a Radical Film by Dan Georgakas

BWC leader looks at past, sees new stage of struggle

Soul Power or Workers Power? The Rise and Fall of the League of Revolutionary Black Workers

Revolutionary struggles of Black workers in the 1960s

The League of Revolutionary Black Workers: A Historical Study

The League of Revolutionary Black Workers and the coming of revolution

Dying from the Inside: The Decline of the League of Revolutionary Black Workers by Ernie Allen

Dan Georgakas on the Successes and Failures of the Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement (DRUM)

The League of Revolutionary Black Workers, Arab Americans and Palestine Solidarity by Lauren Ray

Remembering a History-Making Movement 30 Years Later. DRUM: The Beat Goes On and On

Lessons from the League of Revolutionary Black Workers

Social Class and the Revolutionary Politics of the Black Liberation Movement: The Black Panther Party and the League of Revolutionary Black Workers by Mikhail Pronilover

General Primary Documents

The General Policy Statement and Labor Program of the League of Revolutionary Black Workers

D.R.U.M. – Vanguard of the Black Revolution by Luke Tripp [the south end, January 23, 1969]

On Repression by Kenneth Cockrel, League of Revolutionary Black Workers

Spear, Voice of the League of Revolutionary Black Workers Vol. 1, No. 1 [1969]

Who is James Johnson Spear, Voice of the League of Revolutionary Black Workers

Inner-City Voice, Vol. 2, No. 6, June 1970

Rank and File, Vol. 2, No. 4, March 24, 1971


Newsletter of the Dodge Truck Revolutionary Union Movement

DRUM, Vol. 1, No. 3 [1968]

DRUM, Vol. 1, No. 5 [1969]

DRUM, Vol. 2, No. 11 [1969]

DRUM, Vol. 2, No. 13 [1969]

DRUM, Vol. 2, No. 16 [1969]

DRUM, Vol. 2, No. 21 [1969]

DRUM, Vol. 3, no No. [1970]

DRUM, Vol. 3, No. 10 [1970]

All Out in the Wash DRUM, [1970]

Newsletter of the Eldon Ave. Revolutionary Union Movement

The ELRUM Road is the Only Road

Eldon Ave. Revolutionary Movement Vol. 2, No. 3

Eldon Ave. Revolutionary Movement Vol. 2, No. 4

ELRUM, Vol. 3, No. 5

Newsletters of other RUMs

FRUM, Newsletter of the Ford Truck Revolutionary Union Movement Vol. 1, No. 4

MERUM, Newsletter of the Mound Road Engine Revolutionary Union Movement

UNIRUM, Newsletter of the Uniroyal Revolutionary Union Movement Vol. 1, No. 4, March 24, 1971

LRUM, Newsletter of the Lafayette Clinic Revolutionary Union Movement Vol. 1, No. 4

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Hammer & Steel – New England Party of Labor


Hammer & Steel (H&S) developed from a split in the CPUSA in New England in 1960-61. It was led by Homer Chase, the former organizer of the New England District, CPUSA and and a member of its National Commmittee, together with a small group of his supporters. Notice of the appearance of the H & S group first appeared in the newspaper of the POC in November 1961. The Hammer & Steel Newsletter began appearing the following year. Sometimes going by the name to the New England Party of Labor, H & S criticized the CPUSA for what it described as a liquidation of the revolutionary line on the African American national question, and for returning to a position of “American Exceptionalism” (by supporting the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy). Though a small group, H&S was the only U.S. anti-revisionist organization to be attacked by Khrushchev by name in a polemic against the Communist Party of China (CPC) in which he accused the Chinese of supporting splits in Communist Parties around the world. H & S's efforts to collaborate with the POC and PL failed to bear fruit, but, for a bried period in the mid-1960s, it did succeed in issuing joint statements with the Ad Hoc Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Party. From 1961 through 1966 H & S strongly supported Chinese and Albanian positions in the polemics within the international Communist movement and H & S representatives claim to have met with the Central Committees of both the Chinese and Albanian parties. In 1968, however, H & S sharply criticized the leaders of Cultural Revolution as “left revisionists who are different in form but the same in essence as modern revisionists.” H & S later began calling itself Ray O. Light before adopting its current name – the Revolutionary Organization of Labor.


The American Road to Socialism by Homer Chase

Letter to the Members of the New England District from the National Secretariat, CPUSA


Toward A Marxist-Leninist Party in the United States

Introduction to Which Path – Cowardice or the Teaching of Mao Tse-Tung?

Mississippi and the Congo

Hammer & Steel on Anti-Revisionist Struggles in the US Since 1956


Lumumba and Malcolm X

Ad Hoc Committee and Hammer & Steel Condemn Scheduled Moscow Conference, Brand Imperialism and Revisionism Twin Enemies of People

Trick or treat?

Hammer & Steel on Progressive Labor and the Afro-American National Question

For Whom Does the Bell Toll?

China’s Great Cultural Revolution Has Opened a Channel to Communism by Sidney Rittenberg [Reking Review, April 14, 1967]

“On a Speech by Sidney Rittenberg”

The Meaning of Martin Luther King’s Death

Left Revisionism and the National Question

Purge the Ranks! Clarify the Program! [Hammer & Steel handout to the 1969 SDS Convention]

Maoism vs. National Liberation: Where Does RYM II Stand?


Hammer & Steel Newsletter

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Antithesis appears to have been a small group of young people in San Francisco, who published seven issues of an anti-reivisionist newsletter of the same name from August 1964 until November 1965. It is believed that this group may have had some connections with Hammer & Steel.


The Khrushchev Ouster

Student Movement U.S.A. – ’60s to the Present [On the Berkeley Free Speech Movement]

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Youth for Stalin – Stalinist Workers Group for Afro-American National Liberation and a New Communist International

In 1968, differences within and around Hammer & Steel led to the formation of a group called Youth for Stalin, which later that year issued a long polemic entitled, “The Role of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat in the International Marxist-Leninist Movement. The October Revolution vs. the ’Cultural Revolution’.“ Shortly thereafter, the group changed its name to the Stalinist Workers Group for Afro-American National Liberation and a New Communist International. The Stalinist Workers Group issued an irregular publication, the Stalinist Workers Group Bulletin until at least 1973. In 1976 the group renamed itself Ray O. Light.


Why We Are Youth for Stalin

The Role of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat in the International Marxist-Leninist Movement. The October Revolution vs. the “Cultural Revolution”

Present Situation and Crisis in the Afro-American National Liberation Struggle

Toward Victorious Afro-American National Liberation

Note on Hammer & Steel


Stalinist Workers Group Bulletin #5 [August 30, 1970] [A New Crisis in Afro-American Leadership]

Stalinist Workers Group Bulletin #11 [October 1973] [Sihanouk: A Man to be Watched]

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Ad Hoc Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Party

Little is known about the Ad Hoc Committee. Some claimed it was a secret faction within the CPUSA in Chicago. It published the Ad Hoc Bulletin (Marxist-Leninist) from 1963 through 1971. The publication strongly supported the Chinese Cultural Revolution and some of its materials were reprinted by the Chinese in the mid-1960s.

In their book, Heavy Radicals. (Zero Books, 2015) Aaron J. Leonard and Conor A. Gallagher argue that documents they received from the FBI pursuant to a Freedom of Information Act request reveal that this group was, in fact, a creation of the FBI as part of the Bureau ’s Cointelpro operation against the CPUSA.


Ad Hoc Committee and Hammer & Steel Condemn Scheduled Moscow Conference, Brand Imperialism and Revisionism Twin Enemies of People

Modern Revisionism – The Essence behind the Appearance

China Is World Revolutionary Centre, Says Ad Hoc Committee for a Marxist-Leninist Party, U.S.A.

Revisionism in the Service of Imperialism

U.S. Ad Hoc Committee for Marxist-Leninist Party Acclaims China’s Cultural Revolution

U.S. Ad Hoc Committee for Marxist-Leninist Party Hails Mao Tse-tung’s Thought

Old Left Orthodoxy – Impediment to Revolutionary Progress? [On SDS]

Letter to the Guardian [on the Guardian Forums]

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Communist Party, USA (Marxist-Leninist)

The C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) was born in Los Angeles during the 1965 Watts riots out of a split in the local POC. It published a newspaper, the People's Voice and a theoretical journal, Red Flag from 1965 to 1968. In 1968, the Party underwent a split, with both successor organization's keeping the C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) name. One, under Arnold Hoffman, continued to publish the People’s Voice. The other, headed by Michael Laski, began publishing a new newspaper, The New Worker in 1969. That same year, the Laski group merged with the Proletarian Revolutionary Party in New York, led by Jonathan Leake, a former anarchist turned Maoist, who had been active in the Resurgence Youth Movement, which was founded in September 1964 as the youth section of the Anarchist Federation to which Murray Bookchin and Noam Chomsky belonged. Both C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.)s appear to have disappeared by 1971. After the demise of the Laski C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.), the former members of the Proletarian Revolutionary Party and others reconstituted themselves as the Marxist-Leninist Party. These C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.)s should not be confused with the C.P.U.S.A. (M-L) founded by the Marxist-Leninist Organizing Committee (M.L.O.C.) in 1978 nor with the C.P. (Marxist-Leninist) created by the October League in 1977.


May Day 1965 – 79 Years of Revolutionary Tradition! by the Los Angeles POC [leaflet]

Letter to Challenge newspaper: National Question [on the CPUSA (M-L)]

Comrade Laski, C.P.U.S.A. (M-L) by Joan Didion

The Red Women’s Detachment



We Call on the People of the World to Support the Heroic Struggle of the People of Los Angeles

Notice of Expulsion [of Nelson Peery and Eva Rodriguez]

Founding Conference of Communist Party U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist)

Declaration of the C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.)

Open Letter from the Communist Party, U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist) To All Revolutionary and Anti-Imperialist Forces

Role of C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) in Vietnam Demonstrations

Oppose Police Brutality and Police Violence! [leaflet]

Yorty is a Liar! [leaflet]

We Must Build the August 11th Movement to Oppose Imperialism! [leaflet]

The Progressive Labor Party is a Conciliator of Modern Revisionism

First Anniversary of “People’s Voice”

Report of the General Secretary M. I. Laski to the First National Party Congress of the Communist Party of the United States of America (Marxist-Leninist)

General Program of the Communist Party of the United States of America (Marxist-Leninist)

Some General Comments on the Views of the Communist Party of Japan and the Korean Workers’ Party

Armed Workers Can be Free [leaflet]

Oppose the War in Vietnam–Fight for Socialism [leaflet]

Split in the Communist Party of the United States of America (Marxist-Leninist)

Central Committee Expels M.I. Laski from Communist Party U. S. A. (Marxist-Leninist)

New Developments on Expulsion of Renegade M. I. Laski from the C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.)

Party Split Causes Temporary Setback

Orthodox Group Holds Conference

* * *



United Front in Action by Nommo Thabiti

Revisionist-Panther Fraud: Right Wing Communists Run Anti-Fascist Show

Unity Conference Held N.Y.C., Achieves Goals

Struggle Between Two Lines in the Proletarian Revolutionary Party

Only Proletarian Revolution Will End Imperialist Wars! [flyer]

RED GUARDS MOVEMENT – Basic Guidelines For the Building of a New Communist Youth and Student Organization Based on Mao Tsetung Thought

Class Struggle, No. 1, February 1970.

Draft General Program of the Communist Party U.S.A. (M.-L.)

Panthers Must Fight Off Revisionists’ Kiss of Death!

Forward Along the Road Opened by the Paris Commune – Raise Ever Higher the Banner of Proletarian Revolution and Proletarian Dictatorship! – A Review of the Marxist-Leninist Theory of the State, Revolution and Proletarian Dictatorship, and the Contribution of Chairman Mao Tsetung to that Theory by A. M. Hoffman


Visit to Europe of General Secretary of C.P. U.S.A. (Marxist-Leninist)

C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.)-Progressive Workers Movement Communiqué


People’s Voice

Red Flag

The New Worker

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Marxist-Leninist Party and Red Women’s Detachment

In 1970, as the C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) began to collapse, former Proletarian Revolutionary Party members in New York who had joined the C.P.U.S.A. (M.-L.) and other members and supporters on the East Coast regrouped as the Marxist-Leninist Party. Together with its associated organizations, the Red Women’s Detachment and the Red Guards, the Marxist-Leninist Party was active for several years. The Party itself published a paper called Communist, and the Red Women’s Detachment published a paper called Red Star.

At some point, The Communist ceased publication and a new anonymously published paper, Class War appeared. This was clearly a continuation of The Communist as the article ’Struggle Between Two Lines in the Communist Movement’, begun in the former, was contined in the latter. Class War was notable for its Lin Piaoism, as demonstrated by its critique of the Tenth Congress of the Communist Party of China.

This Marxist-Leninist Party should not be confused with the Marxist-Leninist Party created by the Central Organization of U.S. Marxist-Leninists (C.O.U.S.M.L.) in 1980.


Workers and Soldiers Unite [Proletarian Revolutionary Party flyer]

The Red Women’s Detachment


The Red Women’s Detachment: Revolting Rhetoric & Revolutionary Questions from Ain’t I A Woman, Vol. 1, No. 4, August 21, 1970

Letter of Apology from Roxanne Dunbar



Open Statement of the Marxist-Leninist Party

Draft Program of the Marxist-Leninist Party

Draft Constitution of the Marxist-Leninist Party

Concerning Relations Between the Marxist-Leninist Party and the Various Anti-Revisionist Groups

Discussion of Feminism, “Women’s Liberation,” “Gay Liberation”

Draft Constitution of the Red Women’s Detachment

Monogamy, Prostitution, and the Family


Guns, Sisters, Guns

Boycott the Elections!

World Crisis and the Class War

Struggle Between Two Lines in the Communist Movement

Statement of Class War on the Tenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China

1 Step Forward 2 Steps Back


Communist [paper of the Marxist-Leninist Party]

Red Star [paper of the Red Women’s Detachment]

Class War

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